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аборигены Формозы
« : 21 Ноября 2006 19:38:52 »
THE CHINA REVIEW,
ABORIGINES OF FORMOSA.

Although in the northern parts of Formosa the Chinese have driven the aborigines
inland, and have taken possession of the more fertile parts on the seaboard, in that
part of the Island which lies south of Takow, the Chinese settlements are as yet rather
scattered, and the savages inhabitating this mountainous region still retain their ancient
rights, receive a percentage of the profits of woodcutting, rent their grounds to
the Chinese, and are to all intents and purposes reoognised as the lords of the soil,
But already there are signs that this state of things will not continue long. Chinese
settlers are yearly increasing; military • roads are being cut; the entire region is
divided into military districts; nearly every savage village has a Chinese guard station,
and at every little oreek along the coast soldiers will be found, whilst the importation
of gunpowder is a capital offence. The aborigines also are fast adapting themselves
to the new order of things, and will become, if fairly treated, loyal subjects of the Emperor.
The inhabitants of the tract of territory, -which it is the purpose of this paper to deal
with, may be divided into four divisions, namely:—the Paiwans inhabiting the extreme
south; the Pepohoans or half castes of the plains; the Tipuns inhabitating the
great plain inland from Pilam; and the Ameirs, who, although their chiefs live near
Pilam, have scattered themselves in small villages along the east coast down to South
Cape.
The Paiwans will be more particularly dealt with, as their habits, language, etc.,
have come under the daily observation of the writer for the last four years; while (excepting
the Ameirs) the information, on the other divisions enumerated, has been gathered
from straggling members who have been found domiciled among the Paiwans.
Paiwan is the generic name of all the savage tribes on the south coast, and on the
west up to Tang Kang. They are a sturdy race, tall, fine limbed and active. The women
are, as a rule, of rather small stature, but eminently symmetrical. All are of a
bright copper complexion, but have none of that dusky tinge which characterizes the
negro race. The hair is black and straight, and of a rather coarse texture. Sometimes
there are traces of beard, but the hairs are always carefully plucked out; the breast
and limbs are slightly hairy. The face is broad, and, as a rule, flat; the forehead is
square and the eyebrows well arched; the eyes are open but have a curious glassy
glare; the nose is of all shapes and sizes, from the aquiline to the flat; the lips are
as a rule thin, and sharply cut; the. teeth are of an average size, and well set; the
chin is sometimes square, but oftener sharply rounded. The head is an average size.
Those near the sea coast have conformed to the Chinese style of head dressing ; but further
inland they still retain their old method of cutting the hair: short over the forehead
and a little long at the back. Their traditions say that in the beginning
a rock burst open, and two beings, male and female, came forth; from these
they are descended. They claim to be a distinct race, and affirm they are prior to
the Tipuns or Ameirs. The Tipuns, they say, came from the eastern ocean, conquered
them; and for a long time ruled over them. One day, however, two sons
of the chief of the Tipuns, while roaming about, went into a village. The
inhabitants flocked around, and among other things admired the brightness and
sharpness of their swords. Thereupon the young chiefs proceeded to teach the villagers,
how to sharpen and keep clean their long knives, and then went on their way.
However they had not gone far, before the thought struck them, that, by condescending
to sharpen and polish the knives, they must have lowered themselves in the eyes of
these people, and that the villagers ought to have known better than to have allowed
them to do so. To reassert their dignity, they returned, and commenced to slash
away indiscriminately at the poor people, who in turn became enraged, and began
shooting arrows at the two young men ; then the latter fled, but not without having
received some arrow wounds. When they returned home, their father questioned,
them about the wounds, but as they would not give a satisfactory reply, the old chief
made enquiries, with the result that he condemned his two sons to death. They
escaped however, and fled south to the land of the Paiwans. Here for some time they
suffered great privations, being afraid in the day time to leave the shelter of the woods,
for, although the Paiwans acknowledged the chief of the Tipuns as their suzerain,
they never allowed strangers to settle on their territory. At last, driven by the
pangs of hunger, the two men went on the beach to gather shellfish, were discovered,
and pursued ; but for six days they managed to elude capture. At last they were brought
to bay, and to save their lives swam to a small rock some distance from the shore.
The Paiwans hurried away for boats, while the fugitives prayed to the spirits to send a
storm. Their prayers were answered, and such a storm broke out, that the affrighted
Paiwans fled to their homes, and allowed the two strangers to remain unmolested. That
year there was a great famine in the land, and the Paiwans, who by this time had
identified the strangers, considered it to be a punishment from the gods, for their
wanton behaviour toward the young chiefs.
So they made sacrifices, and sent messengers with gifts of food and arms, imploring
the fugitives to accept them, and become their rulers. Thus the young chiefs became
rulers of the Paiwans. The old chief, when he heard of it, acquiesced, and the
Paiwans, having declared themselves independent, remained so ever since.
Contact with Chinese traders and settlers cannot be said to have done them much
good, for although it has almost put an end to head hunting, and stopped, to a great
extent, the petty intestine warfare, still it has been the means of causing many arts to
fall into disuse. With the advent of Chinese came cheap and strong cottons,
knives, and all kinds of iron utensils, and the aborigines found it easier to purchase
these, by exchange for the products of the soil, than to manufacture them by their
own mechanical labour. Thus the arts of weaving and of working iron, in which
the Paiwans were at one time proficients, gradually became lost, and no flax has been
grown for some generations. Although not very superstitious, the Paiwans
put great faith in their priestesses, and
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Re: аборигены Формозы
« Ответ #1 : 21 Ноября 2006 19:42:44 »
consult them on all important occasions.
They have a firm belief in ghosts, and consider them as spirits condemned for a certain
time to an intermediary state, and thus fitting mediums between this world and the other.
Their ideas of an after state are confused and vague. Their heaven they place towards
the far North, and think it is a beautiful hunting ground, filled with the pleasant things of this world., Hell is understood by them more in the sense of a purgatory, and they do not think that the
punishments inflicted are very severe. They - have no gods or idols, nor have they any definite idea of a supreme being. They believe more in fate, and their incantations are not for the purpose of prayer or
intercession, but to obtain from the spirits a forecast of the future. The witches or
priestesses are adepts in ambiguity, and excuse the equivocal character of their oracles
on the ground that the human mind is deficient in comprehension. They pay due regard to omens, among which sneezing is classed as one of the worst. If a Paiwan had to go twenty miles, and had
reached the nineteenth, he would return home if he heard a sneeze. This is only out
of doors; inside a dwelling it is not considered of any importance. They have also
a dim belief in the transmigration of souls, and are inclined to think that some souls
are, as a mild punishment for minor misdeeds, condemned to pass into certain
animals, where they remain for a time.
Dogs and poultry are more especially supposed to be the temporary habitations of
spirits, and although they have no scruple in rearing poultry for the market, yet they
will never eat any kind of poultry themselves. Pork was also forbidden food, but
of late years intermixture with the Chinese oaused them to break through this as well
as many other traditional restraints. The Paiwans formed at one time a strong
confederation; in every tribe the word of the chief was law. The celebrated
chief Tokitok went further, and entered into alliances with the Tipuns and Deks,
even having the hardihood to open negotiations and exchange visits with the dreaded
Diarotnaks. After his death the confederation broke up into several smaller combinations,
the most noted of which are following. The Tierasocks are a well ordered community,
among whom the members of the ruling family—whose power is now reduced
to little more than friendly arbitration —reside. The Botans are a most turbulent
tribe who set all laws at defiance.
It was against this tribe alone that the Japanese expedition operated and administered
a well deserved chastisement. This tribe can only produce about 50) warriors, but
they derive prestige from their occupying an almost impregnable city, built in the mountains.
The Japanese took it by stratagem. Engaging the Botans on the usual road with
part of their forces, they sent the remainder with Hakka guides, to scale the mountain
on the other side. The Botans, secure in the foreigners' ignorance of the roads, only
thought of the forces in their front, when they suddenly beheld the smoke of their
city, which the Japanese had fired. They at once lost all courage, and surrendered unconditionally.
The Koaluts, a small but predatory tribe, who occupy the grounds around South Cape. They made themselves notorious some 20 years ago, by murdering the captain and crew of.a shipwrecked barque,
and also the captain's wife. They were indefatigable head hunters, and the terror
of Chinese sailors, whose junks were sometimes driven on their coast, in which cases
the crew were mercilessly murdered. Now, however, the Koaluts are surrounded by
guard stations, and are becoming absorbed among by the Chinese settlers. The Limwans
are a docile tribe which inhabitated S.W. Cape, and the plain where the district
city of Heng-chun is now built. Within the last thirteen years, this tribe has been completely
absorbed by the Chinese, whose ways and manners they at once adopted. These
four tribes now shave the head and wear a queue. The Subongs, the northerly division
of the Paiwans, occupy territory near Tang Kang. This tribe may be called absolutely
independent. They can muster over 2,000 warriors, are noted head hunters, and
still indulge in the practice. They wear their hair cropped short and retain all their
ancient characteristics.
The Paiwans are very careless with their children, the result being that many die in
infancy, and they are content that only the strongest should survive. This accounts for
their splendid physique; still they have not the stamina of an average European, and
are decidedly inferior in real strength. A woman may be assisted by other females
at the birth of her first child, but in after labours manages everything herself,
with such help as her husband may be able to give. As a rule the child is suckled until
it is two years of age; afterwards it gets the same food as its elders. Children, only
three years old, may be seen chewing betel nut, smoking tobacoo, and, worse still, drinking
samshu to intoxication. The betel and tobacco did not apparently do much harm ;
but since the art of brewing has been learnt from the Chinese, arrack has become an
article of daily consumption. Tender children are allowed to consume as much as they
please, with lamentable effect, as it appears to stunt their growth, and causes a dropsical
distension of the abdomen. A child allowed to drink this liquor seldom attains
the age of 15. Unless this habit is given up, the race will have but a short existence.
When a son and heir is born, the father keeps open house for all comers. The women
seldom bear more than five children; boys and girls are equally weloome, and are born
in about equal proportion. The marriage customs of the Paiwans are somewhat peculiar, but at the same time sensible. The young men go courting, and when one has in due course obtained the
consent of his particular choice, he forthwith proceeds to carry a bucket of water,
and a bundle of fire-wood, which he places before the fair one's door. When the parents
of the young lady are agreeable, the wood and water is taken in ; if the reverse,
it is allowed to stand. When the parentsconsent, a great feast is given, and thechief
of the village declares the couple man and wife; but when the parents prove unwilling,
the young man must try to propitiate them by presents, and if this has no effect, then
his only resource is to persuade the girl to elope; the parents cannot prevent her, the
law being that all are free to marry whom they please, and no one except the chief can
interfere. The young wife goes to her husband's home, and becomes one of his family;
but she can visit her old home whenever she likes, and none of the old ties of affection
are supposed to be severed.
As a rule, the young men never leave the ancestral home. When a young man marries,
a room is set apart for his private use; in all other respects his status in the family
remains unaltered. The head of the house holds every thing in trust for the mutual
benefit of the whole family, and serves out money, clothing, implements of the chase,
war, or husbandry, as occasion requires. Succession is strictly in the male line. The
eldest son as a rule succeeds the father, but the latter can change this at his pleasure,
by appointing another son or a nephew to succeed him. The old men are greatly respeoted,
and well oared for in their declining years.
Immediately after death the body is sewn up in a buffalo skin. In some spot near the
dwelling, tabooed to all except members of the family, a grave is dug, and lined with four
slabs of stone. The clothes, ornaments, and arms of the deceased are laid in the grave,
and then the corpse is placed in a sitting position, facing towards the nearest high
mountains. The •chist' is covered by another stone slab, and the grave is filled up
and turfed over. In a few years its particular place is forgotten; but once a year,
sacrifices are made in the burying ground to the manes of all the departed.
The Paiwans generally prefer hunting and fishing to agricultural pursuits : but at
the same time the latter are not altogether the advent of Chinese,
prior to the arrival of Dutch settlers traditional accounts of which will be
fully related further on), the principal products of tho soil were rice, millet, coarse
millet, sweet potatoes, taro, yams, peas, sugar cane, bananas, and tobacao.
They have two harvests in a year; men and women then work in the fields alike,
and if occasion requires are capable of great exertion. The favourite diet is fish or
n, with rice or barley ; only when any prevails, they become for the time being strict vegetarins. The rice as by Chinese ; but barley is first and then boiled into a sort of potare built of sun-dried bricks and
thatched over. The outer surface of the are protected from the rain by a g of spilit bamboo, and this lining, being sot about six inches from the bricks, leaves air space which renders the dwellings
y cool in summer. Outside and everything is always clean and neat, the committing of a naisance near a dwelling being strictly prohibited.
As a rule their clothing consists of two short aprous, one before and one behind; if on the war path, they add to this a white tied so as to leave the two ends behind ; but on great festive
on gala dresses of red cloth, profusely bespangled with silver bangles and i their cloth
a good lather and answers the Their principal ornaments are silver bracelets, and silver straps for their pouches, j being inlaid with rare Earrings are round, and in size and ilar to a 12 bore cartridge wad.
can be inserted. This earring is the true mark of pure aboriginal descent; half castes or Chinese are not allowed to wear them, The silver, of which their ornaments are made-, although known to them for a long time, has always been imported. At the present time Chinese silver-smiths make
these ornaments, but in former days the s themselves knew how to work in As far back as their traditions extend, iron has been known and wrought. Where it came from no one can tell; all they can
say is that it was very soft. Iron pyrites abound, and Hakkas have sometimes made attempts at smelting, bat without success, Agricultural implements have been introduced by the Chinese in great variety; formerly the mattock alone was used.
Among the Paiwans skin diseases are rare, and, until smallpox was lately introduced, for which they blame the Jathere were no special or deadly known. Of course many deaths were caused by accidents, the chase, wars, and bites of venemous reptiles; but beyond this and excepting a few who were cut off in their youth by consumption, the majority died of aid age* For a long time the population has remained stationary, and it is considered beet that it should be so. For instance the
Koalut tribe consider their maximum number to be one hundred warriors ; rather than exceed this, they would kill a few infants ; the saying being that, whenever their tribe increases beyond the traditional limit, they are certain to be visited by a pestiis gradually expanded, until the The Paiwans have suffered severely from smallpox, which at one time broke out regularly once a year, and the people tried to save themselves by flying to the mountains.
Later on Chinese impostors went and practised incoulation, or pretended to vaccinate.
Dr. Myers, of Takow, has now, however, sent circulars around, warning both the settlers
and savages, and has at his own expense supplied the foreigners at South Cape Light house with vaccine lymph, and there daily many Chinese and savages are vaccinated gratuitously. Dr. Myers has even gone farther, and offered to treat free of charge all aborigines who may care to visit
his hospital; this will win the lasting gratitude of this grateful but neglected people.
They have but little in the way of medicines, their pharmacopoca being limited to an infusion of citron peel for general malaise, and an infusion of an astringent root for swellings of the glands. Snake
bites are treated by professional suckers, who charge no small fee for their services,
which are generally successful. When an infectious disease prevails, a strict quarantine is established, the mountain paths are barricaded, and no intercourse is permitted between the different villages or tribes, A death,—-particularly from any infectious disease, and likewise in some cases from
common causes,—is considered an unpropitious omen, and none of the bereaved will visit their neighbours until the latter have that they did not consider the death reflected discredit on the household.
The most glorious death of ail is to be killed in the endeavour to capture by clasping a wounded boar, A ring of young hunters will form around ,the thicket ia which one of these animals,
perhaps badly wounded, has taken refuge, and narrowing the circle compel the boar to break cover. The animal attempts to dash through, but none of the young men give way ; they rather press closer on, and happy is the young warrior over whom the boar tries to rush; regardless of consequences be
throws himself on the animal, clasping him where he can with hands and knees, while the others rush in, and with their knives quickly despatch the brute. Sometimes hunters receive fearful wounds; none ever escape altogether, and to at least oae fourth the result is fatal ;• but they laugh to scorn
any attempt to dissuade them, saying, 'Will not his name be remembered in the songs of the tribe ?'

G. TAYLOR.
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Re: аборигены Формозы
« Ответ #2 : 21 Ноября 2006 22:16:35 »


"Pepohoans." [Pepohoans.] 1875. Thomson, 1875, p. 239.



"Pècheurs pepohoans." [Pepohoans fishing.] 1875. Thomson, 1875, p. 234.
« Последнее редактирование: 21 Ноября 2006 22:19:37 от bumali »
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Re: аборигены Формозы
« Ответ #3 : 21 Ноября 2006 22:17:58 »
как их по-русски правильно назвать?  ::)
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Re: аборигены Формозы
« Ответ #4 : 21 Ноября 2006 22:31:38 »


平埔番。此圖收錄在《周遊世界之新航海日誌》Le Tour du Monde Nouveau Journal des Voyages, Paris: Boulevad Sanit-Germain, 1875。本書為畫報性質,為西方各旅行者遊記之集合。書中209-240頁收有英國攝影家John Thomson 1871年來臺灣南部遊歷之作。文中的版畫為依Thomson所攝相片所重新繪製,此張版畫由P. Fritel所描繪。圖中人物的姿勢應是攝影師Thomson要求下,所刻意擺出來的。左立赤膊男子,可看出剃頭編髮辮。
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Re: аборигены Формозы
« Ответ #5 : 21 Ноября 2006 22:33:03 »
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Re: аборигены Формозы
« Ответ #6 : 21 Ноября 2006 22:33:36 »
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Re: аборигены Формозы
« Ответ #7 : 21 Ноября 2006 22:38:35 »


Plain aborigines of Kanatsui in Taipei area/ 1897



Kavalan, one ethnic group of Plain Aborigines in Northern Taiwan/ Photographer unknown/ Prior to 1945


Original Source: Thomson, J[ohn]. The Straits of Malacca, Indo-China and China or Ten years' travels, adventures and residence abroad. London: Sampson Low, Marston, Low, & Searle. 1875. p.224



http://www.wretch.cc/blog/chaotang&article_id=4130317
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Re: аборигены Формозы
« Ответ #8 : 21 Ноября 2006 22:41:22 »
как их по-русски правильно назвать?  ::)
так же, как и по-китайски: пайвань
и вообще, "китайцы (хань) являются самой многочисленной группой населения Тайваня; помимо них, здесь живут еще около 396563 (данные на январь 1999 года) аборигенных жителей, относящихся к девяти основным этносам, - ами, атаял, пайвань, бунун, пуюма, рукай, цао, сайсият и ями" (http://www.rea-most.ru/r/inft.html).

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Re: аборигены Формозы
« Ответ #9 : 21 Ноября 2006 22:43:32 »
как их по-русски правильно назвать?  ::)
и вообще

это к чему?  ???

а как будут Tipuns по-китайски?
« Последнее редактирование: 21 Ноября 2006 22:45:08 от bumali »
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Re: аборигены Формозы
« Ответ #10 : 21 Ноября 2006 22:47:07 »
как их по-русски правильно назвать?  ::)
так же, как и по-китайски: пайвань
и вообще, "китайцы (хань) являются самой многочисленной группой населения Тайваня; помимо них, здесь живут еще около 396563 (данные на январь 1999 года) аборигенных жителей, относящихся к девяти основным этносам, - ами, атаял, пайвань, бунун, пуюма, рукай, цао, сайсият и ями" (http://www.rea-most.ru/r/inft.html).


пайвань - это про Paiwans排湾族, а фото по Pepohoans.
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Re: аборигены Формозы
« Ответ #11 : 21 Ноября 2006 23:06:47 »
пайвань - это про Paiwans排湾族, а фото по Pepohoans.
oops... это пинпу 平埔
а "а вообще" - это вводное слово перед ссылкой.
пинпу можно увидеть здесь: http://china.worlds.ru/info/min/gaoshan.html

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Re: аборигены Формозы
« Ответ #12 : 21 Ноября 2006 23:10:16 »
пайвань - это про Paiwans排湾族, а фото по Pepohoans.
oops... это пинпу 平埔
а "а вообще" - это вводное слово перед ссылкой.
пинпу можно увидеть здесь: http://china.worlds.ru/info/min/gaoshan.html

а Tipuns??  ??? ???
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Re: аборигены Формозы
« Ответ #13 : 21 Ноября 2006 23:14:40 »


"Weapons of the Tipuns." 1888. Taylor, 1888, p. 161, fig. 6.
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Re: аборигены Формозы
« Ответ #14 : 21 Ноября 2006 23:26:31 »
а Tipuns??  ??? ???
ну вот вам и типун на язык;D
это чжибэни (知本族). ссылка:
知本族,性温柔,早开化,惟此俦。 Ti pún chõk,sèng un jiû,chá khai hòa,ûi chhú tiû
chengkiat.myweb.hinet.net/Han-gi%20keng-tian/Tai-oan-keng.htm

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Re: аборигены Формозы
« Ответ #15 : 21 Ноября 2006 23:30:37 »
а Tipuns??  ??? ???
ну вот вам и типун на язык;D
это чжибэни (知本族). ссылка:
知本族,性温柔,早开化,惟此俦。 Ti pún chõk,sèng un jiû,chá khai hòa,ûi chhú tiû
chengkiat.myweb.hinet.net/Han-gi%20keng-tian/Tai-oan-keng.htm


спасибо, наконец-то)) :D
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Оффлайн Wa Xie Li Fu

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Re: аборигены Формозы
« Ответ #16 : 22 Ноября 2006 02:40:59 »
Простите, а кого из них в просторечии называют морскими цыганами (sea gipsies)?

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Re: аборигены Формозы
« Ответ #17 : 22 Ноября 2006 14:07:16 »
Простите, а кого из них в просторечии называют морскими цыганами (sea gipsies)?

скорее всего амэй, т.к. именно они считались (в 19 веке, не знаю, как теперь)) потомками некогда потерпевшей у острова кораблекрушение команды испанского корабля, которой разрешили жить на острове. :)
Non est vivere, sed valere vita

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Re: аборигены Формозы
« Ответ #18 : 16 Декабря 2008 14:57:42 »
Сколько процентов занимают представители аборигенов-тайваньцев в правительстве Тайваня?
旧的不去,新的不来

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Re: аборигены Формозы
« Ответ #19 : 17 Декабря 2008 01:57:29 »
скорее всего амэй, т.к. именно они считались (в 19 веке, не знаю, как теперь)) потомками некогда потерпевшей у острова кораблекрушение команды испанского корабля, которой разрешили жить на острове. :)

До 1641 г. испанцы владели севером острова. Так что о бедных робинзонах вряд ли здесь идет речь.
Я знаю, что ничего не знаю

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Re: аборигены Формозы
« Ответ #20 : 13 Августа 2011 04:01:08 »
Так сколько процентов составляют представители аборигенов-тайваньцев в правительстве Тайваня? Извините, что пришлось повторить вопрос.
旧的不去,新的不来